(提示:不要抓狂)老师们都在这样学习!FABO项目制研究小组转译贡献

A handful of tips to help teachers ease into PBL without getting overwhelmed.
下面是一些可以帮助老师们开始轻松进行PBL而不再不知所措的小技巧
 By Andrew Miller
August 6, 2012 Updated November 3, 2017
作者:安德鲁·米勒
2012年8月6日,更新于2017年11月3日

Picture From Edutopia

Are you just beginning with project-based learning? Are you concerned about time? Are you wondering about how to engage students in their first project? Anyone getting started with PBL has concerns and questions about making it a reality in their classroom.

你是刚开始使用项目式学习吗?你担心时间问题吗?你想知道如何让学生开始他们的第一个项目吗?其实,任何一个刚开始使用PBL的人,都会为如何在课堂上实现它而感到担忧。

One of the things we stress for new PBL practitioners is, as I say, “Don’t go crazy.” It’s easy to go too big when you first start with PBL. I’ve heard from many teachers new to PBL that a large, eight-week integrated project was a mistake. It was difficult to keep momentum, and students often grew tired of the project itself. Teachers and students both need to consider their own scaffolds and a gradual release to more long-term and complex PBL projects. Here are a few things to consider if you’re just getting started with PBL.

们对刚开始使用PBL的从业者,必须强调一点,就是我前文所提到的“不要抓狂”!当你第一次使用PBL时,很容易选择一件过于复杂的项目。我从许多刚接触PBL的老师那里了解到,采用一个为期八周的大型综合项目就是一个重大失误。因为对于这个项目,你很难从一而终,学生们也会常常对这个项目心生厌倦。教师和学生们都需要在经过深思熟虑后,逐步完成更多长期且复杂的PBL项目。如果你是刚刚开始使用PBL的教师,那就赶紧收下这篇推文吧。

01 RENOVATE A PROJECT
学会革新项目

Projects and project libraries are everywhere. Instead of planning a full project with all the learning targets, milestones, and products, teachers can save time by renovating an existing project.

各类项目和资源网站随处可见,因此老师们可以通过革新现有项目来节省时间,而不是重新计划一个包含所有学习目标、重要事件以及结果的完整项目,这样就显得浪费时间了。

Picture from Unsplash

As you search project libraries for ideas, remember to look at projects across all grade levels. Although you might want that very specific seventh-grade social studies project, you might find a relevant project in 11th grade that could be modified.

当你在资源网站中寻求灵感时,请记得搜索所有年级的项目。因为就算你只想找一个特定的七年级社会研究项目,也有可能在十一年级中,找到了只要稍微修改一下,就可以直接使用的同类型项目。

Be open to projects everywhere, find great ideas, and then modify.

所以,在任何时候都要对项目保持开放包容的态度,一旦发现好的想法,就立即进行调整。

02 LIMITED SCOPE
限定时间和选择范围

The longer the project, the more students should learn. Therefore, a four-week project will no doubt target many standards that must be taught and assessed, which can be quite daunting for a first project.

项目的时间越长,学生学的东西就越多。因此,对于一个为期四周的项目来说,它无疑会包含许许多多必须教授和评估的标准,这对于第一个项目来说,是相当艰巨的任务。

Try to focus on two or three priority standards for your first project. Concentrate the learning on one subject rather than multiple disciplines. And aim for a two- to three-week project, or approximately 10 to 15 contact hours.

首先,在第一个项目中,尝试着只优先关注两到三个标准,集中学习一门学科而不是多学科。毕竟你的目标是一个周期为两至三周的项目,大约只需要花费10至15个小时。

Picture from Unsplash

In addition to limiting the time, you might consider narrowing choice. Instead of many product options, offer a short menu. Allow students to choose how they want to work, but choose the teams for the project yourself. There are many ways to build voice and choice into a project, but these aspects can be limited.

除了限制时间之外,还可以考虑缩小选择范围。比如提供一份简明扼要的清单,而不是所有可选择的产品。让学生们自己选择项目团队,但是由你来提供他们需要完成的项目。其次,在项目中,也可以限制他们表达和选择的方法。

By narrowing the scope of a project, teachers and their students can have short-term success that builds stamina for more complex projects later.

总的来说,通过缩小项目范围,老师和学生们都可以获得阶段性的胜利,积累耐心,循序渐进。

03 PLAN EARLY
提前计划

One of the challenges of PBL, but also one of the joys, is the planning process. In PBL, you plan up front, and it does take a significant amount of time. You need to plan assessments and scaffolds and gather resources to support project learning.

提前制定好你的教学计划不仅是PBL的挑战,也是他的乐趣之一。在PBL中,你需要很长时间来提前制定好评估标准和主干部分的计划,并收集相关资源来支持项目学习。

While you might be able to do some of this during scheduled planning time, ask your leadership for creative structures to carve out time for planning. Perhaps staff meetings can be used for this time, or release days can be offered.

虽然你可以在预计时间内,完成其中的部分工作,但是,也可以利用员工会议的时间,或者其他可以利用的时间,去请教你的领导,让你的前辈提供更多富有创造性的想法。

Picture from Unsplash

It’s important to get ahead and feel prepared for and confident about a project. By using the backward design process, you can effectively map out a project that’s ready to go in the classroom.

善始善终,对于建立对项目的信心是十分重要的。为此,你可以通过逆向思维,有效设计出一个能运用到课堂教学的项目。

Once you plan, you’re free to differentiate instruction and meet the needs of your students rather than being in permanent crisis mode trying to figure what will happen tomorrow.

一旦你制定了计划,你就可以自由分辨教学和满足学生需求之间的区别,而不是陷入一个持续纠结明天要做什么的死循环之中。

04 GATHER FEEDBACK
收集反馈

When you have a great project planned, reach out to colleagues both digitally and in person to get feedback. This can be done through posting an idea on Twitter or having a gallery walk of ideas, where teachers walk your project gallery and leave feedback on Post-its. If you’re able, have a 30-minute conversation with a teacher colleague or an instructional coach.

当你有一个很好的项目计划时,可以通过网络或是面谈的方式从同事那里获得反馈。你可以在Twitter上发一篇帖子,也可以采用项目画廊的形式让老师浏览你的项目,并让老师在便签纸上为你留下反馈。如果可以的话,还可以和同事或导师们进行一个30分钟的谈话。

05 MAIN COURSE, NOT DESSERT
主菜,不是甜点

It’s easy in a short-term project to fall into the trap of a “dessert” project that isn’t necessarily inquiry-based. With PBL, the project itself is the learning—it’s the “main course.” In fact, many teachers who think they’re doing PBL are actually doing projects. In PBL you’re teaching through the project—not teaching and then doing the project.

你很容易在并不基于探究为宗旨的短期项目中,掉入一个类似“甜点”的陷阱项目。而PBL项目本身就是学习——这才是“主菜”。事实上,有很多做“甜点”项目的老师会误认为自己在做PBL,但是在PBL中,你是通过项目来教学,而不是为了教学,才做的项目。

Picture From Edutopi 

Use an effective PBL project checklist to ensure a high-quality experience while still keeping a narrow focus and timeline. It helps to make sure that you’re focusing on aspects such as inquiry, voice and choice, and significant content.

为确保一个高质量体验,你可以使用一个有效的PBL项目清单,同时记得关注一个重点和时间线。这有助于保证你的方向,比如学生的质询内容、发言内容、选择内容以及其他重要内容。

06 COMMIT TO REFLECTION
用心反思

We’re all learners, and when we start something new, we start small, limiting our focus to help us master the bigger thing step by step. A key aspect of this is that when you finish a project, you should carve out time to reflect on it.

我们都是学习者,当开始尝试新事物时,要从小事做起,集中注意力,积沙成塔,积水成渊。而这其中的关键是,在项目完成后留出反思时间。

Consider journaling, having a dialogue with an instructional coach, or following a structured reflection protocol with a team of teachers.

你可以考虑写写日记,与导师谈谈心,或者参照教师团队的系统反思方案。

Through reflection, projects become better and may live on for many years, so that reflection time pays off with time saved on subsequent runs through the project.

只要用心反思,你的项目不仅会越来越好,而且可以持续使用多年,并且这些反馈都会在项目后续进行的某一刻,带给你无限的积极效应。

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中国数智学术X- 研究性课题课程 
FABO X PBL Learning
基础班 /Level 1
课程内容:
1.科学素养部分:包括(但不限于)工程研究,工具素养(数制硬件+软件的使用),设计思维(Design Thinking), 跨界创新,主动学习;
2.技术部分:网页设计,2D + 3D 设计,电子电路,编程,数制技巧, 项目研究过程:研究背景调查,数据记录,项目形成;
3.课题项目:进行项目研究,并撰写完成实验记录;
4.项目结题:完成项目成型路演并答辩,并推荐合适竞赛锻炼;提升科技和综评自信力;
报名信息:
课程长度:12周
课时:3小时*12=36小时

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FABO X PBL Learning
提升班 /Level 2
课程内容:
1.综合科学创新素养:包括(但不限于)物理,机械,电子,化学,生物,设计,艺术STEAM跨界素养综合(数制硬件+软件系统),设计思维(Design Thinking)高阶,,跨界创新,主动学习;(根据测评结果和时间进度选择完成)
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报名信息:
课程长度:12周(春季)+暑期集中授课1周+
10周(秋季)+常规沟通约10~15小时
课时:约120小时

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