天作之合:PBL and STEAM Education: A Natural Fit PBL与STEAM教育

Using project-based learning in science, technology, engineering, art, and math classes is a way to solve problems in real-world contexts. 
在科学、技术、工程、艺术和数学课程中使用项目式学习是在现实世界里解决问题的一种方法。

By Andrew Miller
May 20, 2014 Updated May 25, 2017
安德鲁·米勒
2014年5月20日 更新于2017年5月25日

Both project-based learning and STEAM (science, technology, engineering, art, and math) education are growing rapidly in our schools. Some schools are doing STEAM, some are doing PBL, and some are leveraging the strengths of both. Both PBL and STEAM help schools target rigorous learning and problem solving. As many teachers know, STEAM education isn’t just the course content—it’s the process of being scientists, mathematicians, engineers, artists, and technological entrepreneurs. Here are some ways that PBL and STEAM can complement each other in your classroom and school.

项目式学习和STEAM(科学、技术、工程、艺术和数学)教育都在我们的学校里迅速发展。一些学校正在使用STEAM,一些正在使用PBL,还有一些正在利用两者的优势。PBL和STEAM都帮助学校进行有针对性的严谨学习和解决问题。正如许多教师所知道的,STEAM教育不仅仅是课程内容,它还是一个成为科学家、数学家、工程师、艺术家和技术企业家的过程。以下是PBL和STEAM在你的课堂和学校中可以互补的一些方法。

STEAM Beyond the Acronym
字母缩写之外的STEAM

I think one of the pitfalls of STEAM is in the acronym itself. Some might oversimplify STEAM into mastery of the specific content areas. It’s more than that: Students in high-level STEAM work are actively solving problems, taking ownership of their learning, and applying content in real-world contexts. Does that sound like PBL? That’s because it is. High-level STEAM education is project-based learning.

我认为STEAM的陷阱之一就是缩写本身。有些人可能会使STEAM过度简化为对特定内容领域的精通。它不仅仅是这样:在进行STEAM高级项目的学生正在积极解决问题,掌握自己的学习成果,并在现实环境中应用它。这样听起来像不像PBL?那是因为它就是。高级的STEAM教育就是项目式学习。Project-based learning can target one or more content areas. Many PBL teachers start small in their first implementations and pick only a couple of content areas to target. However, as teachers and students become more PBL-savvy, STEAM can be great opportunity to create a project that hits science, math, technology, and even art content. You could also integrate science, art, and the Chinese language, for example—you’re not limited to the subjects in the STEAM acronym.

项目式学习可以针对一个或多个内容区域。许多PBL教师从他们的第一个实施方案开始就从小范围做起,只选择了几个内容区域作为目标。但是,随着师生对PBL的了解越来越多,STEAM可以成为创建一个涉及科学,数学,技术甚至艺术内容的项目的绝佳机会。例如,您还可以将科学,艺术和中文融为一体——不要局限于STEAM首字母缩略词的主题。

Embedding Success Skills
嵌入成功技巧

Skills like collaboration, creativity, critical thinking, and problem solving are part of any STEAM PBL, and will be needed for students to be effective. Like the overall project, success skills are part of the glue of STEAM education. In a STEAM PBL project, teachers teach and assess one or more of these skills. This might mean using an effective rubric for formative and summative assessment aligned to collaborating, collecting evidence, and facilitating reflection within the PBL project. Although STEAM design challenges foster this kind of assessment naturally as an organic process, PBL can add the intentionality needed to teach and assess the 21st-century skills embedded in STEAM.

协作,创造力,批判性思维和解决问题的技能是任何STEAM 项目式学习中的一部分,并且对于提高学生的学习效率是必不可少的。像整个项目一样,成功技能也是STEAM教育的核心内容。在一个STEAM PBL项目中,教师教授和评估其中一项或多项技能。这可能意味着在PBL项目中会使用有效的形成性和终结性评估准则,以配合协作、收集证据和促进反思。尽管STEAM设计了挑战,自然地将这种评估作为一个有机过程来培养,但PBL可以增加教学和评估STEAM中特意嵌入的21世纪所需技能。

For example, a teacher might choose to target technological literacy for a STEAM PBL project, build a rubric in collaboration with students, and assess both formatively and summatively. In addition, the design process, a key component of STEAM education, can be utilized. Perhaps a teacher has a design process rubric used in the PBL project, or even an empathy rubric that leverages and targets one key component of the design process. When creating STEAM projects, consider scaffolding and assessment of these skills to make the project even more successful.

例如,教师可以选择将技术素养作为STEAM PBL项目的目标,与学生合作制定一个评估准则,并以形成性和总结性的方式进行评估。此外,设计过程是STEAM教育的一个重要组成部分,可以被充分利用。也许老师有一个用于PBL项目中的设计过程规则,或者甚至是一个利用并针对设计过程中某个关键组成部分的同理心规则。在创建STEAM项目时,请考虑对这些技能进行结构搭建和评估,以使项目更加成功。

Students Shaping the Learning
学生塑造学习

In addition to the integration of disciplines and success skills, voice and choice are critical components to STEAM PBL. There are many ways to have students shape the learning experience. They may bring a challenge they want to solve based on their interests—a passion-based method. And students can choose team members and products to produce to solve authentic challenges. In addition, they may be allowed to pick sub-topics within the overall project or challenge, or questions they want to explore within the overall driving question.

除了整合学科知识和成功技能外,发言和选择也是STEAM 项目式学习的重要组成部分。让学生形成学习体验的方法有很多。他们可能会根据自己的兴趣带来他们想要解决的挑战——一种基于激情的方法。学生可以选择团队成员和产品来解决真正的挑战。另外,他们可能被允许在整个项目或挑战中选择子主题,或者在整个驱动型问题中选择他们想探索的问题。

Planning Questions
计划问题

When teachers design STEAM projects, they need to leverage a backward design framework and begin with the end in mind. Here are some questions to consider in planning:What two or more disciplines will be targeted and assessed?How will students engage in real-world, authentic problem solving?How will students help shape the learning through voice and choice?What products will students create to demonstrate mastery of the content standards?

当教师设计STEAM项目时,他们需要利用反向的设计框架,并从最终目标开始。这些是在计划中要考虑的一些问题:

将针对和评估哪两个或更多学科?
学生将如何参与现实生活中真正问题的解决?
学生将如何通过发言和选择来帮助塑造学习方式?
学生将制作哪些作品来证明他们对内容标准的掌握?

Courtesy of Andrew Miller
由安德鲁·米勒(Andrew Miller)提供

Students at the writer’s school used a laser cutter to create sculptures from 2D images.

作家学院的学生们用激光切割机从2D图像中创作雕塑。

Mrs. Atkinson, an art teacher at my school, engaged students in a STEAM project to transform 2D images into 3D art pieces. In addition to integrating art content, she had students learning technology tools and skills such as using a laser cutter, which requires coding and program knowledge the students had to learn. The project also involved math content, which they needed to create their designs. And Mrs. Atkinson also focused on creativity and the design process. She allowed students voice and choice in their piece, and the overall project was a real-world situation in that it was a challenge artists actually face. She had students document their process in design journals that included reflections, images, and plans for the piece, and she used the journals to assess process and mastery of skills and content. This is an example of a STEAM project that is engaging and challenging.

阿特金森夫人是我们学校的一名美术老师,她让学生们参与了一个将2D图像转换成3D艺术作品的STEAM项目。除了整合艺术内容,她还让学生学习技术工具和技能,比如使用激光切割机,这需要学生学习代码和编程知识。该项目还包括数学内容,他们需要这些内容来创建他们的设计。阿特金森夫人也关注创意和设计过程。她允许学生们在他们的作品中表达自己的意见和选择,整个项目是一个真实情况,因为这是艺术家们实际面临的挑战。她让学生在设计期刊上记录他们的过程,包括反思、图像和作品的计划,她用这些期刊来评估过程,并掌握技能和内容。这是一个具有吸引力和挑战性的STEAM项目的例子。

High-quality STEAM education is high-quality project-based learning. While there will be attention to the disciplines embedded within STEAM, we must focus less on the content and more on the overall pedagogical implications for effective instruction, and use PBL to make learning happen.

高质量的STEAM教育是高质量的项目式学习。虽然我们会关注STEAM中嵌入的学科,但我们必须降低对内容的关注度,而更多地提高对有效教学的整体教学意义的关注,并使用PBL来实现学习。

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